Scientists of Yamal published the monograph about fishermen, who had lived five thousand years ago in Priuralskiy district
14:13 13 декабря 2018
Категории: News in English
The fifth issue of “Archeology of the Arctic” presented on the 13th of December in the press center of the news agency “Sever-Press” is supplemented with the collective monograph “The settlement of the Neolithic epoch in the town Samotnel-1. Materials and researches”. It was presented by a senior researcher of the sector for archeology of the scientific center for study of the Arctic, candidate of historical sciences Olga Tupakhina.
According to her, the issue includes materials of field and desk researches, the brightest artifacts from the collection received in the result of excavations in 2010-2014. The monograph reflects the results of the row of interdisciplinary researches giving rich material for reconstruction of household, economic, adaptation aspects of life of ancient population in West-Siberian Polar Regions.
At the end of IV – the beginning of III millennium BC, approximately 5 thousand years ago, large collectives leading sedentary lifestyle lived on the territory of modern Priuralskiy district of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug on the right bank of the Ob River. The settlement Gorniy Samotnel was studied during several years. It included 5 half dugouts with the area from 300 to 700 square meters – very big for the North. In conformity with an average index of living area in 5 square meters per person, it can be estimated that from 60 to 140 people lived in each dwelling. Up to 400 people could live in five dwellings. The settlement is unique not only with its material culture – very richly decorated ceramics of various shapes, developed traditions of stone processing. The adaptation strategy of the settlement — net fishing — is also unique.
In severe climate conditions at use of technologies of the Stone Age it was hardly possible to supply a large settlement by means of hunting, gathering or primitive fishing. Mass catch of fish with help of nets, as well as processing of received products allowed meeting basic needs of the huge collective. Along with fishing there was hunting. It also played a huge role; the population actively used different types of animals and birds. According to the found remains, there were geese, ducks, swans, beavers, deer, moose, probably bears and wolves and also marine animals that came into the Gulf of Ob.
Within study of food carbon deposits on the dishes the scientists found out an interesting fact. None of the numerous samples showed any remnants of meat food, that is, the meat was not boiled, but cooked in other ways: smoked, dried, frozen. And fish, which was cooked either separately or together with plants both terrestrial and aquatic, was the main diet.
Analyzing the results of the research, the scientists were able to get the fairly complete description of the settlement, which they refer to one of three groups that existed in the Neolithic period on the territory of Yamal – a group of sedentary fishermen. The book will be useful to archeologists and the wide range of readers interested in ancient history of the region.