Scientists from Tyumen assessed state of health of indigenous population in Yamal
16:13 14 января 2019
Категории: News in English
The results of the scientific expedition of the group of scientists from the Industrial University of Tyumen to Purovskiy and Krasnoselkoup district of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug will be laid to the basis of the comprehensive ethno-sociological monitoring of neo-industrial development of the arctic region. The specialists assessed influence of modern industrial development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation on conditions of life activity of indigenous ethnic minorities of the North. Last May the scientists of the Industrial University of Tyumen conducted the scientific expedition and field sociological researches in two districts.
“1340 representatives of indigenous ethnic minorities of the North were asked on the fact-finding questionnaire that we had developed. The social-demographic structure of the respondents is very wide and includes men and women from 18 to 60 years old and older, busy in different spheres of activity”, professor Anatoly Silin commented. – “The received results allowed forming the necessary databank of analytical and diagnostic information characterizing modern state of human potential of aboriginal population. It helped to complement and update already available massifs of ethnological, cultural, economical, socio-demographic and other parameters, having united them into the unified system on the basis of Big Data and Data Mining”.
It is difficult to overestimate the necessity of ethno-sociological monitoring: a new stage of industrial development of the territory requires the newest data, which, unfortunately, can not be provided by state statistics. The authorities need scientific and information support to take effective management decisions. The task, in the opinion of the expedition participants, can be fulfilled with help of the mechanism of regular monitoring of changes in public consciousness on a row of indicators, such as the level of trust in the authorities, the level of education, health, the level of social pessimism and others. It will allow taking timely necessary measures in order to avoid different negative social manifestations. According to Anatoly Silin, three basic groups of people’s features are especially important in human potential of indigenous ethnic minorities of the North in the Russian Arctic zone. The first includes demographic characteristics, the level and quality of their life, social wellbeing, the second – professional competences, the level of education and the third – their physical and psychical health.
“The field sociological researches conducted in Purovskiy and Krasnoselkoup districts of compact residence of aboriginal population were basically aimed at study of these groups of human potential. The choice of these two districts was stipulated with our interest to the problem of interaction between indigenous population and oil-gas companies participating in the new stage of development of hydrocarbon resources of Yamal. Big enough experience of such interaction was accumulated in the first district, and it is only beginning in the second”, as Anatoly Silin noted.
Assessment of relations between indigenous population and arrived participants of neo-industrial development became one of questions asked to the respondents. As a result, about one third of the respondents assessed them as without-problematic. Almost 45% point out “the definite degree of tension” and only 10-13% mark strong tension and cases of conflicts. The following aspects prevail among reasons of the tension: “difference in the size of income of indigenous and arrived people” (39.1%) and “competition for working places” (32.2%).
The research confirms that the issue of health for northern peoples is one of the most priority – 88.7% of inhabitants of both districts concern about it. And it is not a surprise. According to medical and demographic statistics, the length of life of indigenous population in the Russian Arctic is on 10-11 years shorter that in general in the country. The length of life of men-aborigines is on 14 years shorter than of women. At that, the level of disease rate among indigenous ethnic minorities of the Arctic zone of Russia grows.
It was found that mechanisms of the aboriginal organism, which were formed over the long period to protect from influence of extreme natural and climate conditions of the Arctic, occurred to be dangerous in the conditions of industrial development. Aboriginal population has a formed protective and adaptive feature of the breathing mechanism: the phase of inhalation is shortened, exhalation is lengthened. Thus, the significant amount of air remains in the lungs after exhalation, protecting against negative effects of cold inhaled air. However, in conditions of air pollution, this useful feature leads to accumulation of toxins in the lungs, and as a result — pulmonary pathology, including oncology.
The second most important problem is the lack of financial resources and family income — 88.1%. Problems of loss of language and culture of the ethnic group are next in importance (87.9%), preservation of nature for traditional activity (85.2%), rising costs due to rising prices and tariffs (84.3%), education of children (83.3%).
According to the press service of the Industrial University of Tyumen, creation of the databank of analytical and diagnostic information necessary for the authorities of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to prepare and to take effective management decisions aimed at improvement of quality of life of tundra-dwellers became the result of the scientific expedition in the two arctic districts of the country. Ethno-sociological monitoring built into the management system of the region can become the mechanism for implementation of this task, in the opinion of the scientists of the University.
The sociological expedition was supported by the government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and also in collaboration with the scientific center for study of the Arctic and the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A senior researcher of the department of marketing and municipal management at the Industrial University of Tyumen, Doctor of Sociology, Professor Anatoly Silin, assistant professor, candidate of social sciences Lidia Belonozhko and a postgraduate Alexander Gyurdjinyan participated in it.