On the home front residents of Yamal supplied venison, fish and furs for the battlefront
14:57 7 мая 2020
Категории: News in English
The scientific center for study of the Arctic establishes new facts about the contribution of Yamal to the Great Victory. The scientists collect archival materials not only on participation of residents of Yamal in the Great Patriotic War, but also about their labor feats on the home front, scientific research conducted in the region for development of polar agriculture and efficient use of biological resources. The information was given to the news agency “Sever-Press” in the department of external relations of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War about 358 thousand reindeer were pastured in the region. It was the second largest herd in the entire Soviet Union after Chukotka.
«For reindeer herders of Yamal the war years were ones of the most difficult in the entire twentieth century. During four years of the war the number of reindeer decreased by more than 130 thousand. Reindeer meat was supplied for the battlefront and workers of defense enterprises in Omsk. Reindeer-herding farms were created in 21 collective farms with almost 68 thousand reindeer to preserve the branch in 1944-1945. And corrals — paddocks for economic and veterinary treatment of herds were built”, said a junior researcher in the section of history and archaeology in the scientific center for study of the Arctic Olga Ryabkova.
The important place, according to the scientist, was occupied with fur trade. Every year hunters extracted and handed over furs of excellent quality to the state for millions of rubles. There were four animal farms in the region. Silver-black foxes were bred on one of them in Katravozh.
Reindeer herders and hunters, who went to the battlefront, were replaced by women. They also became the main labor force in the fishing industry. 81 thousand tonnes of fish were caught in the region and handed over to the state from 1941 to 1945. Since 1942 fishing had been conducted in the year-round mode. In 1943 and 1944 the People’s commissariat of the fishing industry equipped scientific and fishing expeditions under the leadership of the outstanding scientist, doctor of biological sciences, Professor Alexander Probatov for effective use of aquatic biological resources and defining of catch amounts.
Development of polar land cultivation was continued during the war. The well-known scientists of Yamal Dmitry Chubynin and Boris Patrikeyev are considered its pioneers. The beginning of the industry innovative for the Far North was laid in the 1930-s. During the Great Patriotic War Shuryshkarskiy district and Salekhard were the leaders in plant growing. In November of 1942 the agricultural exhibition was held in the settlement Muzhi, where achievements of district collective farms were presented.
According to Olga Ryabkova, each collective farm had its own stand. They demonstrated their success in the sphere of agriculture: grown potatoes, white cabbage, turnips, radishes and tomatoes. Grain crops were represented with barley.
According to the historian, the regional authorities held activities that promoted popularization of plant growing among population. Therefore, during the war, despite the lack of labor resources and insufficient material support, the branch did not fall into a decline. The total area of cultivated lands 1.5 times increased. The area of greenhouses and hothouse frames more than 2 times grew.
(The used photos are from the State archive of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the State archive of socio-political history of Tyumen Oblast and funds of the regional Museum and Exhibition complex named after I. S. Shemanovskiy).
The photos can be found here: https://sever-press.ru/2020/05/07/jamalcy-v-tylu-zagotavlivali-dlja-fronta-oleninu-rybu-i-pushninu/